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Literally, it is how your computer finds a location on the information highway. A store layout plan that determines which categories of merchandise will be placed adjacent to each other. A form of vertical marketing system designed to control a line or classification of merchandise as opposed to an entire store's operation. Such systems involve the development of comprehensive programs for specified lines of merchandise. The vertically aligned companies, even though in a non-ownership position, may work together to reduce the total systems cost of such activities as advertising, transportation, and data processing.
A term applied to studies relying on questionnaires and referring to the speed, cost, and control of the replies afforded by the mode of administration. A model providing a decision support system for making advertising budget, copy, and media allocation decisions.
It evaluates the value of any potential media insertion schedule by aggregating over all segments and individuals within each segment the projected impact of the schedule for each individual Aaker Persons or firms that adopt an innovation are often classified into five groups according to the sequence of their adoption of it: The numbers are percents of the total number of actual adopters, not of the total adopter categories the number of persons or firms in the marketplace.
There is wide disagreement on the exact portion in each category. This term sometimes is used to refer to a model of stages in the purchase process ranging from awareness to knowledge, evaluation, trial, and adoption.
In other cases, it is used as a synonym for the diffusion process. An arrangement by which the seller sets a specific future date when the terms of sale become applicable. Season dating is another name for terms of this kind. An order placed well in advance of the desired time of shipment.
By placing orders in advance of the actual buying season, a buyer is enabled often to get a lower price because the buyer gives the supplier business when the latter would normally be receiving little. A brand that is owned by an organization usually a manufacturer that uses a marketing strategy usually involving substantial advertising.
An advertised brand is a consumer product, though it need not be, and is contrasted with a private brand, which is not normally advertised heavily. Any announcement or persuasive message placed in the mass media in paid or donated time or space by an identified individual, company, or organization.
The company, organization, or individual who pays for advertising space or time to present an announcement or persuasive message to the public. An organization that provides a variety of advertising related services to clients seeking assistance in their advertising activities.
A full-service advertising agency engages in the planning and administration of advertising campaigns, including setting advertising objectives, developing advertising strategies, developing and producing the advertising messages, developing and executing media plans, and coordinating related activities such as sales promotion and public relations.
A limited-service advertising agency concentrates on one of the major advertising agency functions such as developing and producing advertising messages or media plans.
A payment made to a retail or wholesale operator by the seller of an advertised product or for use in purchasing local advertising time and space for the advertiser's product. The decision about how much money should be spent for advertising during a specific time period in order to accomplish the specific objectives of a client. This decision also involves the allocation of specific amounts of the total advertising appropriation to various media, creative approaches, times of the year, and to the production costs involved in preparing the advertising messages for placement in the various media.
A group of advertisements, commercials, and related promotional materials and activities that are designed to be used during the same period of time as part of a coordinated advertising plan to meet the specified advertising objectives of a client. A contractual agreement between an advertiser and the operator of any form of advertising media for the purchase of specified types of advertising time or space.
A nonprofit organization in the United States composed of advertisers, advertising agencies, and advertising media whose purpose is to organize and carry out public service advertising. The Council selects particular public service organizations to support, identifies volunteer advertising agencies to create advertising campaigns for each selected public service organization, and coordinates the distribution of the advertising materials to the advertising media, which donate time or space in which to disseminate each campaign to the public.
An evaluation of the extent to which a specific advertisement or advertising campaign meets the objectives specified by the client. There is a wide variety of approaches to evaluation, including inquiry tests, recall tests, and market tests.
The measurement approaches include recall of ads and advertising themes, attitudes toward the advertising, persuasiveness, and impact on actual sales levels. The theme or concept that serves as the organizing thought for an advertisement.
Ideas are used to dramatize the product-related information conveyed in advertising. The advertising manager participates in the development of marketing plans, acts as the principal contact with the advertising agency, provides the agency with market and product data and budget guidelines, and critiques the agency's creative and media recommendations at the time of or prior to their submission to marketing management.
The advertising manager normally reports to the corporate or division marketing manager. Many consumer packaged goods companies with product manager setups do not have an advertising manager; rather the functions listed above are performed by product managers or brand managers for their assigned products. If, in such setups, there is an advertising manager, this executive usually is limited to providing expert counsel and services to the product managers.
The various mass media that can be employed to carry advertising messages to potential audiences or target markets for products, services, organizations, or ideas. These media include newspapers, magazines, direct mail advertising, Yellow Pages, radio, broadcast television, cable television, outdoor advertising, transit advertising, and specialty advertising. It is sometimes called the creative work by advertising professionals in recognition of the talent and skill required to prepare the more effective pieces of advertising.
Large numbers of models have been used to assist in making advertising decisions. Econometric and other market models, as well as decision calculus models such as ADBUDG, have been used in the determination of advertising budgets.
Media selection and scheduling models have included linear and nonlinear programming-type models, such as MEDIAC, and decision calculus models. Few models, such as Aaker's ADMOD , have been designed to deal simultaneously with budget, copy, and media allocation decisions. An Internet business model where advertisers go to one source to buy advertising on several Web sites at once through run-of-category and run-of-network buys.
A statement prepared by the advertiser often in association with an advertising agency to set forth specific goals to be accomplished and the time period in which they are to be accomplished. Objectives can be stated in such terms as products to be sold, the amount of trial purchases, the amount of repeat purchases, audience members reached, the frequency with which audience members are reached, and percentages of the audience made aware of the advertising or the product.
The percentage of the target market that remembers a significant portion of the advertising message conveyed by an advertised campaign. A statement prepared by the advertiser often in association with an advertising agency setting forth the 1 competitive frame, 2 target market, and 3 message argument to be used in an advertising campaign for a specific product or service.
The documentation by means of tests or other evidence of product performance claims made in advertising. The occurrence of consumers becoming so used to an ad that they stop paying attention to it. Under the Wheeler Lea Amendment to the Federal Trade Commission Act, unfair or deceptive acts or practices which may include advertising are prohibited.
Postal Service are involved in regulating advertising. A form of trade sales promotion in which retailers are given a discount in exchange for either promoting the product in their own advertising, setting up a product display, or both. It is also known as a display allowance. A descriptive model explaining the level of marketing communication expenditures for industrial products. Two of the more important explanatory variables are the size of the product market i.
A type of advertising placed by businesses and other organizations that is intended to communicate a viewpoint about a controversial topic relating to the social, political, or economic environment. Affect is growing in importance in attempts to understand and predict consumer behavior.
A state of conflict that exists when a channel member feels stress, frustration, tension, or hostility toward another channel member. A dishonest tactic used by affilitates in an affiliate marketing program to generate unearned, illegitimate income. For example, an affiliate in a pay-per-click advertising program repeatedly clicking on a link to generate commission income.
Compensation is typically awarded based on performance measures such as sales, clicks, registrations or a combination of factors. Any of a number of businesses that provide support services to affiliate marketing programs.
Services can include tracking commissions and activity, providing marketing and sales support, or other services. A store operated as a unit of a voluntary group or franchise group. Also, it may be a store controlled by another store but operated under a separate name. A tendency for similar or complementary retail stores to be located in close proximity to one another. For example, furniture stores in a city may be located in close proximity to one another in order to facilitate consumer comparison shopping.
The services offered by the selling firm after the sale has been made to promote goodwill, ensure customer satisfaction, and develop customer loyalty.
This requires a salesperson to monitor order processing; to ensure proper installation and initial use of products; and to provide maintenance, repair services, and information on the care and use of products. The potential future sales generated by owners of equipment for repair and replacement parts.
The dollar reduction in welfare experienced by the principal due to the inherent nature of the agency relationship with management. An advertising agency assigned specific media buying responsibilities by a client.
A theory of the firm that seeks to explain corporate activities as arising out of the natural conflicts between the principals stockholders and agents managers of a firm. Normally an agent does not take title to goods. Independent middlemen intermediaries who do not take title to the goods they handle, but do actively negotiate the purchase or sale of goods for their clients.
A concept of market segmentation that assumes that most consumers are alike. Retailers adhering to the concept focus on common dimensions of the market rather than uniqueness, and the strategy is to focus on the broadest possible number of buyers by an appeal to universal product themes. Reliance is on mass distribution, mass advertising, and a universal theme of low price. In retailing, aging is the length of time merchandise has been in stock.
The aging of certain products is part of the curing--e. The classification of accounts receivable according to the number of days outstanding. An approach to understanding how advertising and selling supposedly work. The assumption is that the consumer passes through several steps in the influence process. First, Attention must be developed, to be followed by Interest, Desire, and finally Action as called for in the message. Hierarchy of Effects Model by Palda in This approach involves the hierarchy of effects: Note the similarity to the adoption process.
Airline Deregulation Act This act ended classical economic regulation of the airline industry by gradually phasing out price and entry controls and eventually abolishing the Civil Aeronautics Board.
A table in a major store aisle, between departments, used to feature special promotional values. Ajax is a programming language that allows for the updating of specific sections of content on a web page, without completely reloading the page. Founded in April , Alexa Internet grew out of a vision of Web navigation that is intelligent and constantly improving with the participation of its users. Along the way Alexa has developed an installed based of millions of toolbars, on of the largest Web crawls and an infrastructure to process and serve massive amounts of data.
The process a search engine applies to web pages so it can accurately produce a list of results based on a search term. Search engines regularly change their algorithms to improve the quality of the search results. Hence search engine optimisation tends to require constant research and monitoring.
A long-term relationship maintained by a commitment among two or more firms to voluntarily give up some of their operational autonomy in an effort to jointly pursue specific goals. The alliance goal is to cooperatively build upon the combined resources of participating firms to improve the performance quality and competitiveness of the channel. The pooling of complementary resources by two firms in an arrangement that falls short of a full merger or acquisition. Alliances typically involve coordinated activity from very early in the process of new technology development.
A sorting process that consists of breaking a homogeneous supply down into smaller and smaller lots. A regular day charge account. If paid in full within 30 days from date of statement, the account has no service charge, but when installment payments are made, a service charge is made on the balance at the time of the next billing.
An approach to the advertising budget that establishes the amount to be spent on advertising as the funds remaining after all other necessary expenditures and investments have been covered in the comprehensive budget for the business or organization.
HTML coding that provides an alternative text message when a non-textual elements such as in image fails to display properly. A popular search engine. One of the first search engines originally owned by Digital now owned by Yahoo. The net cost of altering goods for customers for repair of items in stock. The cost includes labor, supplies, and all expenses, including costs for this service when purchased outside the store.
A section, run in conjunction with one or more selling departments, that alters merchandise to customers' wishes, especially for men's and women's apparel. An overall feeling or mood projected by a store through its aesthetic appeal to human senses.
Often employed by the competitors of a property? American National Standards Institute. American Technology Preeminance Act This act requires that, as of , packaging labels in consumer commodities must be expressed in both inch or pound symbols and the metric system.
A method of trade area analysis that is also known as the similar store or mapping approach. The analysis is divided into four steps: A three-step process for making resource allocation decisions. First, the organization's objectives, sub-objectives and strategies are organized hierarchically.
Next, the decision maker evaluates, in a pair-wise fashion, each of the elements in a particular stratum of the hierarchy with respect to its importance in accomplishing each of the elements of the next-higher stratum.
Finally, a model is applied to these pairwise judgments that produces a set of importance or priority weights for each element of each stratum in the hierarchy Wind and Saaty Areas of application in marketing include the product portfolio decision, selection of new products to develop, and generation and evaluation of various marketing mix strategies. A large and well-known retail operation located in a shopping center and serving as an attracting force to draw consumers to the center.
It refers to the visible, clickable text for a hyperlink. The result when buyers make comparisons of prices or products against a reference price or reference product. The result of this comparison is usually weighted toward the anchor, creating an anchor bias, the anchoring effect. The provision of such services typically includes sorting, storing product prior to delivery, marking or tagging the product, and collecting rate shipment. Some of these services are charged for and some are not.
A format for graphic images that incorporates several images rotated in sequence. This technique is typically used to convey additional information in a limited space such as a banner ad. Year-on-year percentage growth annual growth? X12 American National Standards Institute. The basic electronic data interchange format utilized in North America for communication transmissions. A discount in addition to the cash discount if a bill is paid prior to the expiration of the cash discount period, usually at the rate of 6 percent per annum--e.
A lease that limits the type and amount of competition a particular retailer faces within a trading area or shopping center. The penalty duties on goods that have been declared in violation of antidumping laws. The duties that take the form of special additional import charges equal to the dumping margin. The laws passed by a host government to protect local industries from dumping.
Commonly called the Celler-Kefauver Act, this act amends the Clayton Act to prohibit mergers and acquisitions in restraint of competition by the purchase of assets or of stocks.
Federal antitrust policy is set forth in four laws: These laws are negative in character and outlaw restraints of trade, monopolizing, attempting to monopolize, unfair methods of competition, and, where they may substantially lessen competition or tend to create a monopoly, price discrimination, exclusive dealing, and mergers.
Apache is a free, open-source web server software system that is pervasive on UNIX, Linux, and similar operating system types.
It is also available for Windows and other operating systems. Google Analytics' admin system is powered by a variant of Apache. Acronym for Application Programming Interface. This is a program that advertisers create to manage their SEM campaigns, bypassing the search engines' interfaces.
An application program written in Java which allows viewing of simple animation on web pages. The term used to describe companies that provide software or services to a network of customers on an ongoing basis. Customers pay for those services in a stream of smaller payments rather than simply purchasing software outright. The initial stage in a sales interaction. The objectives of the approach are securing approval for the sales call, getting the prospect's attention and interest, and building rapport with the prospect.
A sale subject to later approval or selection, the customer having unlimited return privileges. A list of suppliers with whom purchasing agents are allowed to close contracts.
A form attached to an invoice or copy of purchase order in retail stores, containing details to check before payment. It is sometimes called a rider. The simultaneous purchase and sale of the same commodity or security in two different markets in an attempt to profit from price differences in the two markets.
The APT is designed as a replacement for the untestable capital asset pricing model. In essence, the APT says that asset returns are a linear function of various macroeconomic factors e. At the present time the model's empirical validity, testability, and the number and identity of its return generating factors are controversial issues in financial economics. An enclosed shopping area with a number of stores in lanes under archways and with one roof overhead. The geographic area surrounding a city in which the broadcasting stations based in that city account for a greater share of the listening or viewing households than do broadcasting stations based in other nearby cities.
A form of a cluster sample in which areas for example, census tracts, blocks serve as the primary sampling units.
The population is divided into mutually exclusive and exhaustive areas using maps, and a random sample of areas is selected. If all the households in the selected areas are used in the study, it is one-stage area sampling, while if the areas themselves are subsampled with respect to households, the procedure is two-stage area sampling. Department of Defense agency that, in conjunction with leading universities, created ARPAnet, the precursor of the Internet.
This is applicable to the cash discount period, indicating that the discount will be granted if payment is made within the number of days specified, calculated from the time the goods arrive at the destination. It is used for the purpose of accommodating distantly located customers. The net payment period, however, is computed from the time of shipment. A person possessing good taste who is skilled in the visualization of advertising ideas.
An area of computer science concerned with designing smart computer systems. AI systems exhibit the characteristics generally associated with intelligence in human learning, reasoning, and solving problems. Promotional strategy linking a company to the visual or performing arts sponsorship of a symphony concert series, museum exhibit, etc.
Any illustration including design elements, drawing, painting, photography used in the production of print advertising. The term is often used in the short form art. The merchandise that is offered for sale without recourse to an adjustment or a refund.
The goods may be irregular, shopworn, or damaged, but that is understood. A meta search engine that allows natural english quires.
You can ask a question as you search. A reference group that an individual consumer wants to join or be similar to. An establishment engaged primarily in purchasing farm products or seafood in growers' markets or producing regions. The assembler usually purchases in relatively small quantities, concentrates large supplies, and thus assembles economical shipments for movement into a major wholesale market center.
A model for predicting the market share of a new frequently purchased product using pretest market information. Perceptions and preferences of potential customers are measured via interview and a simulated shopping experience conducted at a central location. The prediction is based on the sample participants' reaction to advertising exposure to advertisements for several brands , estimated level of product trial based on the simulated shopping experience , estimated repeat purchase level via follow-up interview , and brand preference judgments Silk and Urban Evidence on the model's predictive validity has been reported by Urban and Katz The formal transfer of property, as for benefit of creditors, especially accounts receivable as collateral for a loan.
A type of resident buying office that is cooperatively maintained in a central market by a group of noncompeting independent stores. It is controlled and financed by the stores, each store paying a prorated share of the office expenses.
An association of countries established in at Bangkok, Thailand, to accelerate economic progress and to increase the stability in the South East Asian region. A sorting process that consists of building an assortment of products for use in association with each other. In terms of men's shirts, for example, it is the range of prices, styles, colors, patterns, and materials that is available for customer selection. A fake grass roots push to generate buzz or interest in a product, service, or idea.
Often this movement is motivated by a fee or gift to the writer of a post or comment or may be written under a phony pseudonym. The physical characteristics of the store such as architecture, layout, signs and displays, color, lighting, temperature, noise, and smells creating an image in the customer's mind. The store architecture, layout, lighting, color scheme, temperature, access, noise, assortment, prices, special events, etc.
The process by which a consumer selects information in the environment to interpret. Also, it is the point at which a consumer becomes aware or conscious of particular stimuli in the environment.
Retrieved 16 January Managed Futures for Institutional Investors: Analysis and Portfolio Construction. Handbook of Hedge Funds. Charter Financial Publishing Network Inc. Washington and Lee Law Review. Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 15 May Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 5 June Activist shareholder Distressed securities Risk arbitrage Special situation.
Algorithmic trading Day trading High-frequency trading Prime brokerage Program trading Proprietary trading. Arbitrage pricing theory Assets under management Black—Scholes model Greeks finance: Vulture funds Family offices Financial endowments Fund of hedge funds High-net-worth individual Institutional investors Insurance companies Investment banks Merchant banks Pension funds Sovereign wealth funds.