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This is compounded by the fact that the economics of delivering energy tend to be priced for capacity as opposed to average usage. One of the purposes of a smart grid infrastructure is to smooth out demand so that capacity and demand curves align more closely. Some parts of the energy industry generate considerable pollution , including toxic and greenhouse gases from fuel combustion, nuclear waste from the generation of nuclear power, and oil spillages as a result of petroleum extraction. Government regulations to internalize these externalities form an increasing part of doing business , and the trading of carbon credits and pollution credits on the free market may also result in energy-saving and pollution-control measures becoming even more important to energy providers.

Consumption of energy resources, e. Many electric power plants burn coal, oil or natural gas in order to generate electricity for energy needs. While burning these fossil fuels produces a readily available and instantaneous supply of electricity, it also generates air pollutants including carbon dioxide CO 2 , sulfur dioxide and trioxide SOx and nitrogen oxides NOx.

Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas which is thought to be responsible for some fraction of the rapid increase in climate change seen especially in the temperature records in the 20th century, as compared with tens of thousands of years worth of temperature records which can be read from ice cores taken in Arctic regions. Burning fossil fuels for electricity generation also releases trace metals such as beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, mercury, nickel, and silver into the environment, which also act as pollutants.

The large-scale use of renewable energy technologies would "greatly mitigate or eliminate a wide range of environmental and human health impacts of energy use". Energy conservation and the efficient use of energy would also help. In addition, it is argued that there is also the potential to develop a more efficient energy sector.

This can be done by: Best available technology BAT offers supply-side efficiency levels far higher than global averages. The relative benefits of gas compared to coal are influenced by the development of increasingly efficient energy production methods. Since now energy plays an essential role in industrial societies , the ownership and control of energy resources plays an increasing role in politics.

At the national level, governments seek to influence the sharing distribution of energy resources among various sections of the society through pricing mechanisms; or even who owns resources within their borders. They may also seek to influence the use of energy by individuals and business in an attempt to tackle environmental issues. The most recent international political controversy regarding energy resources is in the context of the Iraq wars.

Some political analysts maintain that the hidden reason for both and wars can be traced to strategic control of international energy resources. According to the latter group of analysts, U. Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity often governmental has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production , distribution and consumption. The attributes of energy policy may include legislation , international treaties, incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation , taxation and other public policy techniques.

Energy security is the intersection of national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. Access to cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern economies. However, the uneven distribution of energy supplies among countries has led to significant vulnerabilities.

Threats to energy security include the political instability of several energy producing countries, the manipulation of energy supplies, the competition over energy sources, attacks on supply infrastructure, as well as accidents, natural disasters, the funding to foreign dictators, rising terrorism, and dominant countries reliance to the foreign oil supply. With as much dependence that the U. Energy security has become one of the leading issues in the world today as oil and other resources have become as vital to the world's people.

However, with oil production rates decreasing and oil production peak nearing the world has come to protect what resources we have left in the world. With new advancements in renewable resources less pressure has been put on companies that produce the world's oil, these resources are, geothermal, solar power, wind power and hydro-electric. Although these are not all the current and possible future options for the world to turn to as the oil depletes the most important issue is protecting these vital resources from future threats.

These new resources will become more useful as the price of exporting and importing oil will increase due to increase of demand. Producing energy to sustain human needs is an essential social activity, and a great deal of effort goes into the activity.

While most of such effort is limited towards increasing the production of electricity and oil , newer ways of producing usable energy resources from the available energy resources are being explored.

One such effort is to explore means of producing hydrogen fuel from water. Though hydrogen use is environmentally friendly, its production requires energy and existing technologies to make it, are not very efficient.

Research is underway to explore enzymatic decomposition of biomass. Other forms of conventional energy resources are also being used in new ways. Coal gasification and liquefaction are recent technologies that are becoming attractive after the realization that oil reserves , at present consumption rates, may be rather short lived.

Energy is the subject of significant research activities globally. For example, the UK Energy Research Centre is the focal point for UK energy research while the European Union has many technology programmes as well as a platform for engaging social science and humanities within energy research.

All societies require materials and food to be transported over distances , generally against some force of friction. Since application of force over distance requires the presence of a source of usable energy, such sources are of great worth in society. While energy resources are an essential ingredient for all modes of transportation in society, the transportation of energy resources is becoming equally important.

Energy resources are frequently located far from the place where they are consumed. Therefore, their transportation is always in question. Some energy resources like liquid or gaseous fuels are transported using tankers or pipelines , while electricity transportation invariably requires a network of grid cables. The transportation of energy, whether by tanker, pipeline, or transmission line, poses challenges for scientists and engineers, policy makers, and economists to make it more risk-free and efficient.

Economic and political instability can lead to an energy crisis. Notable oil crises are the oil crisis and the oil crisis. The advent of peak oil , the point in time when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, will likely precipitate another energy crisis.

Between and there have been around 69, deals in the energy sector. This cumulates to an overall value of 9, bil USD. The most active year was with about 3. The competitive and wholesale energy supply business of Constellation Energy would become a subsidiary of Exelon re-branded as "Constellation, an Exelon company. Constellation NewEnergy, a wholly owned subsidiary of Constellation Energy, was a leading competitive supplier of electricity, natural gas , and energy-related services to commercial, industrial, and institutional customers throughout North America.

Constellation Generation Group owned approximately 9, MW of generating capacity from power and fuel processing facilities in seven states and generated more than 52 million MW-hours per year. Its generation portfolio included plants powered by nuclear, coal, natural gas, oil and renewable fuels. Constellation Commodities Group conducted energy trading operations by trading a diverse portfolio of electricity, natural gas, and other energy products under both short- and long-term contracts to energy users, including utilities and other energy marketers.

Constellation Energy employed almost 10, people. It was named " Energy Company of the Year" in the Platts Global Energy Awards, and was chosen by its peers as the best in the energy industry when it was awarded Most Admired Energy Company of However, both sites desire new nuclear units see Nuclear Power Program. The merger was canceled on 25 October Pursuant to a agreement, the French power company EDF is permitted to purchase up to 9.

While French power company Electricite de France , who already owned 9. Construction of the project was completed in December As a result of the acquisition, Exelon would take ownership of Constellation's assets and business units. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The New York Times. Archived from the original on The Wall Street Journal.